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HazLoc Certifications Requirements for work in Oil and Gas
Aims for today Justification of Customer Requirements W hy are Hazardous Location Certifications needed? Deep dive into the details of Hazloc classifications Examination of G overning and Regulatory Bodies Our combined take away
What are customers demanding? 30,000 ft view Confidence that work can safely occur within explosive environments Confidence in equipment deployed in explosive environments Safety of Personnel and Equipment Limiting of Liability GEOFORCE HARDWARE GOALS: #1 Safety is the key driver. #2 To meet the most stringent of explosion safety requirements.
Common Sense on Explosion Safety In a run - of - the - mill imperfect system, there is no guarantee an explosion will NOT happen . Regulators in Hazloc Safety are simply working a numbers game by estimating the probabilities an explosion will occur . By certifying products the industry is simply working very hard to limit risk and liability to some globally acceptable level .
Taking Action in Prevention The first step is not having an explosion. Goal # 1 : Do all that is reasonable for prevention! Extreme methods : deploy or work in hazardous environments at all Shut down and go home Proactive Prevention Through Design : Isolate and classify the Hazardous Environments/Equipment Limit all energies in Hazardous Environments Confine the explosion if it does happen
Deep Dive Questions to answer: What causes an explosion? What are some protection concepts? How do we control hazardous situations? What are classified locations? What is classified equipment? What are protection methods? What are Gas Groups? Assumptions : Not talking about : Mining equipment Dust environments Talking only about : E lectrical equipment Gas environments
What Causes an Explosion? E xplosive environments depend on: The concentration of combustible substances (gases , mists, vapors) The concentration of oxygen or other oxidizing agent All available sources of ignition energy (electrical sparks, heat sources) If any side of the triangle is missing, combustion cannot exist (low probability). If any side of the triangle is removed combustion will extinguish.
Combustion Limits What does it take for a concentration of gas to combust? Too Lean? Too Rich? Just Right!
Common Heat Sources Hot surfaces Faulted/Shorted electrical components Open flames Coils , resistors, lamps Brakes or hot bearings Hot surface ignition can occur at the Auto - Ignition Temperature Stray electric currents Static electricity Radio frequency Friction sparking Switch contact sparking Lightning Auto - Ignition Temperature ( AIT): The point a substance will spontaneously ignite without additional energy . We must design in protections against these heat sources!
Explosion Prevention Primary layer of explosion prevention AVOIDANCE of combustible substances CLASSIFY hazardous locations and equipment operating in/around them TRAINING of manufacturers and personnel on hazardous locations Secondary layer of explosion prevention Actively prevent ignition through LIMITING of operating energies CONTROLLING the concentrations of combustible substances ISOLATE and protect equipment from the ingress of explosive mixtures If an explosion occurs, design to RESTRICT the effects of an explosion to a minimum safe level
Controlling Hazardous Situations We need to know what we are dealing with to solve the problem and be safe! Classify Operating Environment (Location) Knowledge of what we are working in. Classify Operating Equipment Knowledge of how we operate. Design Safety Standards Ensure classified equipment operates safely in a given classified environment Market Acceptance Through Certification
Location Classification What does having a hazardous location mean ? What is a classified hazardous location ? A specific area or volume of interest Has equipment Classification of a location ultimately provides: A method that clearly identifies the existence of a hazardous substance H ow long/often it will be in that location Reduced overall level of installation risk through design improvements So now we know that something particular location .
Location Classification What is the hazardous medium? How long is that medium present ? United States What is the hazardous medium? Class 1 - Gases Class 2 - Dusts How long is the medium present? Division 1 - ignitable hazardous environments exist under normal operating conditions Division 2 - ignitable hazardous environments are handled, processed or used, but are isolated to closed systems. All Others What is the hazardous medium? G - Gases D - Dusts How long is the medium present? Zone 0 > 1000hrs/ yr Zone 1 > 10 hrs / yr , < 1000hrs/ yr Zone 2 < 10hrs/ yr ) Two basic questions to classify a location : - 8,760 Hours Per Year -
Location Classification Zone 1 / Division 1 Zone 2 / Division 2 Zone 0 / Division 1 ( * )
Equipment Classification What is a piece of classified equipment? Any equipment that is destined to operate in classified locations Has the characteristics of increased explosion risk while in operation Classification of equipment ultimately provides: A method of accountability to match equipment to classified locations. Reduced operating risk through knowledge of equipment design around us or localized to a particular location and we know how we operate in it. How do we identify hazardous equipment?
Equipment Classification United States Class (Gas/Dust) Division (Hazard Severity) Protection Methods Equipment c lassification matches the location classification that it will operate in. All Others Protection Levels (Design Risk) Protection Methods Equipment classification is based on the risk a piece of equipment will cause an explosion in the first place. How do we specify which equipment is acceptable for a classified location?
Closer Look: Protection Levels Cat 3 Operates in Zone 2 Gc Enhanced Protection N ormal operation safety + Cat 2 Operates in Zone 1 Gb High Protection Normal operation safety + Single fault protection Cat 1 Operates in Zone 0 Ga Very High Protection Normal operation safety + Double independent fault protection Provides for: The probability or risk equipment will cause an explosion in the first place. Specific equipment classification Specific fault tolerance Equipment design evaluation for all Zones a, b or c?
Closer Look: Protection Methods Example Protection Methods Cat 1 - Zone 0 Intrinsic i Cat 2 - Zone 1 Increased Quartz/Sand Oil Cat 3 - Zone 2 Non - nA Provides for: D esign methods that achieve a specific protection level Ensures electronics will operate in specific hazardous locations Based on the removal of a side of the fire triangle ia, ib or ic ?
Closer Look: Intrinsic Safety Spark Energy Limitation Operating Voltage / Current Total Capacitance / Inductance Component Separation / Creepage Distances PCB Trace Sizing/Spacing Control of M aterial Properties Thermal Energy Limitation Surface Temps < Temp Class Component Thermal R atings ( a,c ) Small C omponent Considerations Design Constraints Control of Protective Components Detailed Component Fault Analysis Manufacturing Quality Assurance Explosion Protection: Energy is limited to levels below minimum ignition energies of explosive atmospheres. No spark or any thermal effect in the circuit can cause ignition. The design is evaluated and considered inherently safe. Protection Components: Fuses, Resistors, Zener Diodes, Blocking Capacitors ia, ib or ic ?
Closer Look: Gas Groups Temp. Classes US Gas Groups Groups A to D Based on Gas Chemistry Based on Gas Chemistry Temperature Classes Class T1 to T6 Based on hottest surface under fault conditions Provides for: Classification of risk based on different g as exposures Classification of risk based on different hot surface temperatures
Closer Look: Gas US Gas Group EU Gas Group Ignition Temp. Temp Class Acetylene Group A IIC 305 o C T1 Hydrogen Group B IIC 560 o C T1 Hydrogen Sulfide Group B IIB 102 o C T6 Ethylene Group C IIB 425 o C T3 Propane Group D IIA 470 o C T1 Combustible Gas Examples
Closer Look: Markings Example Markings ATEX IECEx Identification Methods: Clearly identifies Classified Equipment Specifies how equipment operates Gives indication of operating limitations ia II 2 G 9999 Ex ia IIC T4 Ga
Regulations Zooming Back Out Questions to answer: What are the certifications? What is ATEX? What is IECEx? What are some differences? Alphabet Soup NEC 500 / 505 ATEX IECEx AUSEx / ANZEx UL 913 IEC/EN/BS/UL 60079 EU Directive 99 / 92 /EC EU Directive 94 / 9 /EC
National Certifications European Union (CENELEC) ATEX Australia (STANDARDS AUS.) AUSEx ANZEx North America (OSHA) NEC NEC 500 - 504 NEC 505 UL 913 UL 2279 UL 60079 EU Directive 76/117/EEC EU Directive 82/130/EEC EU Directive 94/9/EC EU Directive 99/92/EC EN 50014 EN 50020 EN 60079 P - 3 Scheme P - 008 Scheme AS/NZS 2381.1 AS/NZS 61241.14 MP87 - 1,2: 2008 Common Examples
North America Governing Body: OSHA National Electrical Code (NEC) NEC Articles 500 thru 505 UL 913 v5.0 UL 913 v7.0 UL 2279 US standards are moving to harmonize with IEC standards! Location Classifications NEC Articles 500 to 503 define: Location classifications (Class/Division) Protection Methods Gas Groups Temperature Classifications NEC Article 505 defines: Harmonizing to IEC Standards Intrinsic Safety Regulations NEC Article 504 UL 913 v5.0 US Intrinsic Safety UL 913 v7.0 / UL 2279 / UL 60079 - 11 Harmonizing to IEC Standards
North America HERO Safety of Ordinance HERO classifications for ordinance HERO Safe HERO Susceptible HERO Unsafe Establishes the maximum levels of electromagnetic radiation that a transmitting device may discharge without risking a potential safety hazard Specifies the minimum safe separation distance transmitting device can be from ordnance or Electrically Initiated Device (detonator) Governing Body: US Dept. of Defense DoD 6055.09 - STD (DOD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards) HERO (Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance) MIL - STD - 464 (Electromagnetic Environmental Effects Requirements for Systems) MIL - HDBK - 237B and MIL - HDBK - 240A Not necessarily required for Oil & Gas Example Rating:
European Union Location Classifications ATEX Use Directive (1999/92/EC) EN 60079 - 10 Location classifications (Environment/Zones) Atmosphere Gas Groups Equipment Classifications ATEX Product Directive (94/9/EC) EN 60079 Equipment Group Equipment Category Protection Methods Intrinsic Safety Regulations EN 60079 - 11 Governing Body: EC (European Community) CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization) EU Directive 76/117/EEC EU Directive 82/130/EEC EU Directive 94/9/EC EU Directive 99/92/EC EN 60079 Series EU standards are harmonized with IEC standards! ATEX
IECEx www.iecex.com Accepted anywhere What is IECEx? International Conformity Assessment Scheme Covers Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres NOT a national certification Globally agreeable rulebook ISO Type 5 Certification Scheme Test Article Certification Production Quality Surveillance Public Certification Database Governing Body: IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) IEC Technical Committee: TC 31 (Equipment for explosive atmospheres) Directives for Explosion Ratings: IEC 60079 - Flammable gases and vapors IEC 61241 - Combustible dusts IEC 61779 - Flammable gas detectors Quality Control Certifications ISO 9001 ISO 80079 - 34
IECEx Scheme Requirements For Equipment Manufacturers Two Components to IECEx certification 1. Ensure product design conform to regulations through: Design, Test and Verification of product design to IECEx regulations Results in a successful IECEx Test Report ( ExTR ) 2. Ensure product manufacturing conforms to certified design through: Manufacturers Quality System Assessment via ISO 9001 and ISO 80079 - 34 Initial Manufacturers QA Onsite Audit On - going (annual) Manufacturers Onsite Surveillance Audits of Production Results in a successful IECEx Quality Assessment Report ( ExQAR )
GOAL: IEC Certificate of Conformity Certification Requirements IECEx Test Report (ExTR) + IECEx Quality Assessment Report (QAR) = IECEx Certificate of Conformity and the honor to mark equipment and hardware as certified for work in explosive environments
IECEx Structure IAF - International Accreditation Forum IEC - International Electro - technical Commission National Accreditation Bodies Certification Bodies (Notified Bodies) Testing Laboratories Manufacturers
Quick ATEX vs. IECEx Combination of cherry picking multiple rule bodies (mostly EU) into a unified rulebook for Ex equipment / locations. Certificate of Conformity ( CoC ) from a Certification Body R educes the certification complexities over the ATEX Annex system International conformity scheme ATEX IECEx EU centric rulebook Declaration of Conformity ( DoC ) Complex Annex based assessment system Nationalized Ex assessment Scheme originally designed to lessen trade barriers in the EU
Sales/Support Toolbox Protection Level: Cat 1 Protection Method: Zone 0 ia II 2 G 9999 Ex ia IIC T4 Ga What will we sell? Geoforce GT - 1 Example
Sales/Support Toolbox What hazardous location type do you operate in? Answer should be a Zone/Class - Div What equipment rating do you expect from us? Answer should be a protection method or protection level In what hazardous atmosphere do you operate? Answer should be a form of hazardous gas or dust. What operating temperatures do you experience? Do you see large impacts or shock damage?
Sales/Support Toolbox Summing it up We speak the language of safety Prevention is first priority The dynamics of explosion sources, be able to spot them W hy locations and equipment must be classified W hat the classifications for locations and equipment are The different certifying schemes
s park thermal surface temp auto - ignition temp spacings normal operation operation under faults ingress protection energy storage charge pumps total capacitance countable fault lump inductance mechanical sealing dielectrics distances through compound metal content limitations QAR/QAN h azardous area deep discharge enclosure IP protection level faulted operation surface resistivity creepage working voltage simple apparatus control drawing diode safety barrier infallible separation level of protection Questions?