by jacksonschenk

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Foodborne Illnesses

Published Oct 16, 2013 in Health & Medicine
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A bacterium (genus Salmonella) that occurs mainly in the intestine, esp. a serotype causing food poisoning.Food poisoning caused by infection with such a bacterium: "an outbreak of salmonella".Definition:How do I avoid Salmonella?Salmonella is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the United States, symptoms usually last between 4-7 days and most cases get better without treatment. It can be a more serious illness with older adults, infants, or people with chronic diseases. Some symptoms include Diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, and vomiting. Avoid eating high risk foods such as raw or lightly cooked eggs, undercooked ground beef or poultry, and unpasteurized milkWash hands thoroughly before handling food, and make sure all preparation surfaces are clean as wellKeep food properly refrigeratedSeparate cooked foods from uncooked and ‘ready-to-eat’ foodsMake sure foods are cooked completely and check using a meat thermometer Refrigerate foods quickly after meal times and during transportDo not cross contaminate cooking utensils

Definition:Food poisoning caused by botulinum growing on improperly sterilized canned meats and other preserved foods.Botulism is a rare but serious illness that affects the nervous system and can cause paralysis; it can be potentially fatal and should be treated as a medical emergency. Botulism toxins thrive at room temperature. Some symptoms include fatigue, dizziness, blurred vision, headaches, nausea, and paralysis. Symptoms will usually start between 12 and 36 hours after ingesting contaminated food, and generally last for several weeks.How do I avoid Botulism?Make sure foods are kept out of room temperature; serve or refrigerate them after preparationDon’t let children younger than 12 months old have honey or corn syrupAlways carefully inspect packaged products when buying from a store and make sure they’re not punctured, torn, partially opened or damagedAvoid eating food from dented or leaking cansKeep baked potatoes hot, wrapped in aluminum until served or refrigerated Be sure to use proper canning techniques at homeRefrigerate oils that are infused with garlic or other herbs

Definition:A bacillus (Escherichia coli) normally found in the human gastrointestinal tract and existing as numerous strains, some of which are responsible for diarrheal diseases. Other strains have been used experimentally in molecular biology.Escherichia coli bacteria normally live in the intestines of healthy people and animals and is usually relatively harmless. You can be exposed to E. Coli from contaminated water or food, especially raw vegetables or undercooked ground beef. Healthy adults can usually recover within a week, but younger children and older adults can develop a life-threatening form of kidney failure. How do I avoid E. Coli?Use food thermometers to make sure that ground beef has reached a safe temperature of 70°CAvoid eating high risk foods, especially undercooked ground beef, unpasteurized milk or juice, soft cheeses made from those unpasteurized milks, and alfalfa sproutsWash your hands before preparing food, after putting diapers on infants, and after contact with cows, sheep, or goats, their food or treats, or their living environment Keep foods below 4°C and above 60°C

Definition:A bacterium of a genus (Staphylococcus) that includes many pathogenic kinds that cause pus formation, esp. in the skin and mucous membranes.Wash hands thoroughly before handling and preparing foodDo not prepare food if you are sick, or if you have a nose or eye infectionDon’t prepare food if you have cuts or skin infections on your hands or wristsKeep food preparation areas cleanIf foods is prepared more than 2 hours before serving, keep foods out of the danger zone (between 4°-60°C)Store cooked foods in a wide, shallow container, and refrigerate as soon as possible afterHow do I avoid Staphylococcus?Staphylococcus can cause food poisoning when someone handling the food contaminates it, and then it is not properly refrigerated. Staphylococcus can also be caused by contamination through improper equipment and surface sanitation. These bacteria multiply quickly at room temperature and produce a toxin that causes this illness. Some symptoms include vomiting, loss of appetite, severe abdominal cramps, and mild fever. This illness will usually last 1 or 2 days.

Definition:A form of viral hepatitis transmitted in food.Hepatitis A is a liver disease that is primarily spread through food or water contaminated by stool from an infected person. It is one of the fewfoodborne illnesses that can be prevented by vaccination; it is recommended for all children over 12 months old, for travelers going to certain countries, and for people at high risk for infection. It can come from raw or uncooked shellfish from contaminated water, raw produce, contaminated drinking water, uncooked foods, and cooked foods that are not reheated after contact with an infected food handler. Some symptoms are diarrhea, dark urine, jaundice, fever, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite and can last anywhere from 2 weeks, to 3 months. How do I avoid Hepatitis A?Avoid eating raw oysters or other raw or uncooked shellfish For children: get vaccinated against Hepatitis AFor adults: get vaccinated if you are exposed to a person infected with Hepatitis A, or if you are planning to travel a country with high rates of Hepatitis A

Definition:a single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Norovirus (species Norwalk virus) that was first discovered in Norwalk, Ohio, and causes an infectious human gastroenteritis—called also Norwalk agentNoroviruses are the most common cause of infection of the stomach and intestines in the States. The Norwalk Virus spreads very easily and is often called the stomach flu. The virus can be spread directly through infected people, through foods or drinks they have prepared for other people, and it can also survive on surfaces that have been contaminated with the virus. Some of the things you can get the virus from are fresh produce, shellfish, ready-to-eat foods touched by infected worker, or any other foods contaminated with vomit or feces from an infected person. The illness can will usually last 1-3 days and some symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and stomach pain. How do I avoid the Norwalk Virus?Wash your hands as frequently as possible with soap and running water for at least 20 seconds, especially after using the bathroom and before preparing food Avoid bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat foods if you work at a restaurant Clean and disinfect surfaces contaminated by vomiting or diarrhea, and food preparation equipment and surfacesIf you are ill with diarrhea or vomiting, do not cook, prepare, or serve food for others