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 Redesigning Designer DrugsPresented By: Sabra R. Botch-Jones, M.S., M.A., FTS-ABFTfTox Consulting, LLCPresented To: Current Trends in Forensic Science, Fort Worth, TX. May 16, 2012 Contact Info:

Objectives: What are designer drugs and which ones are we seeing in the laboratories and emergency departments?Why are they produced and so prevalent in our communities?What are the effects that nurses/doctors and law enforcement may see in individuals?

Designer drug: is a term used to describe drugs that are created (or marketed, if they had already existed) so as to avoid the provisions of existing drug laws, usually by preparing analogs or derivatives of existing drugs by modifying their chemical structure to varying degrees, or less commonly by finding drugs with entirely different chemical structures that produce similar subjective effects to illegal recreational drugs.

Spice or Synthetic CannabinoidsMDPV/4-Methylmethcathinone (Mephedrone) or “Bath Salts”BZP/TFMPP or “Legal X (Ecstasy)”Khat/SalviaWhat compounds we will cover:

First detected in the United States in November 2008, by the Drug Enforcement Administration’s (DEA) forensic laboratory.

Spice CannabinoidsJWH-0181-Pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole JWH-0731-Butyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indoleCP 47,497 and homologues2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol)HU-210[(6aR,10aR)-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)-6a,7,10, 10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c] chromen-1-ol)]“You can't be responsible for what idiots are going to do."  JW Huffman

Designed and evaluated as a research tool to study the cannabinoid systemFound in the herbal incense products sold via the Internet, gas stations, convenience stores, tobacco shops and head shopsSmoked for their psychoactive effects

Spice Cannabinoids“11.4 percent of 12th graders used Spice or K2 in the past year, making it the second most commonly used illicit drug among seniors”-Office of National Drug Control Policy

Approximately 5 times as potent as most marijuana No known legitimate use for these substances

Some Street Names

“Everyone I know who smokes any kind of JWH synthetic cannabis herbal blend ends up with pain and weakness in their joints, limbs, and backs. After almost stroking out on this stuff because my tolerance would go up and I would have to smoke more and more to feel effects, thus sending my blood pressure through the roof…” –User Comment WFAE 90.7

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASEContact:DEA Public Affairs(202) 207-7977Chemicals Used in "Spice" and "K2" Type Products Under Federal Control and Regulation for Additional 6 MonthsDEA Continues Studies to Determine Whether To Permanently Control Five SubstancesFebruary 29, 2012 -- (Washington) -- The United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) exercised its emergency scheduling authority to extend, by six months, control of five chemicals (JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-200, CP-47,497 and cannabicyclohexanol) used to make so-called “fake pot” products.  Except as authorized by law, this action makes possessing and selling these chemicals or the products that contain them illegal in the United States for an additional six months. 

In 2010 there were 304 call to Poison Control for Bath Salt ExposureIn 2011, this number jumped to over 6000!In 2011 to 2012 we see an increase through July and a decline , with a plateau around October 2011. Why?

Structurally related to cathinone (active alkaloid found in the khat plant), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methamphetamine, methcathinone and other schedule I phenethylaminesCentral nervous system (CNS) stimulant, psychoactivity, and hallucinogenic effectsAdverse effects reported by abusers include increased heart rate, chest pain, agitation, irritability, dizziness, delusions, nose bleeding, nausea, sweating, vomiting, and intense, prolonged panic attacks3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)4-Methylmethcathinone (Mephedrone)/(Street Names: “bath salts,” “Ivory Wave,” “plant fertilizer,” “Vanilla Sky,” “Energy-1”)

It has been sold as a “bath salt” in 500 mg packets with the label indicating “for novelty use only” or “not for human consumption” without any instructions for dosage.

As of October 21, 2011, mephedrone, its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers have been temporarily controlled in schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act.

N-Benzylpiperazine (BZP)Phenylpiperazine analogue1970’s Studied as a possible antidepressant Used in combination with TFMPPIn combination with TFMPP has “ecstasy-like” effects

BZP Street Names

1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)Piperazine (TFMPP) N-monsubstituted piperazine derivative Anxiolytic, anti-aggressive, locomotor inhibition, hyperthermia, respiratory depression…..TFMPP sold alone as “Molly” or “TFMPP”“The price per pill (Ecstasy) in Los Angeles ranges from $3-$11, while the price per pill in New York City ranges from $3 - $25.”- Office of National Drug Control Policy (National Northern Border Counter Narcotics Strategy)

BZP/TFMPP usually is consumed orally, snorted or smoked.BZP/TFMPP acts as a stimulant in humans and produces euphoria and cardiovascular effects, namely increases in heart rate and systolic blood pressure.  Effects of BZP generally last from 6 to 8 hrs.BZP/TFMPP primarily is abused by teenagers and young adults. Used at raves, nightclubs, private parties, and other venues where the use of club drugs, particularly MDMA.TFMPP Structure

KHAT(Street Names: Khat, Qat, Kat, Chat, Miraa, Quaadka)

Khat, Catha edulis, is a flowering shrub Contains two central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, namely cathinone and cathineAmphetamine-like effects: euphoria, a feeling of increased alertness and energy, hyperactivity, anorexia, and users report feeling relaxed and talkative Sympathomimetic effects may include elevated blood pressure, dilated pupils, hyperthermia, arrhythmias, and increased respiration

User Population:Abuse of khat in US is highest in cities with a substantial population of immigrants from East Africa and Arabian Peninsula. These cities include Boston (MA), Columbus (OH), Dallas (TX), Detroit (MI), Kansas City (MO), Los Angeles (CA), Minneapolis (MN), Nashville (TN), New York (NY), and Washington D.C. Cathinone and cathine are in Schedules I and IV, respectively,

SALVIA DIVINORUM (SALVINORIN A)“Salvia Divinorum Effects”-

Salvia Street Names

Effects include perceptions of bright lights, vivid colors and shapes, body or object distortions, dysphoria, uncontrolled laughter, a sense of loss of body, overlapping realities, and hallucinations incoordination, dizziness, and slurred speech

RecapThe emerging drugs we are seeing in the laboratories and emergency departments: Spice or Synthetic Cannabinoids “Bath Salts” (MDPV/Mephedrone) “Legal X” (BZP/TFMPP) Khat/SalviaWho are the users and why?: Young Adults/Adolescents Legal status or “Legal High”Desired Effects: From Stimulants (alertness and energy), Hallucinogens (altered perceptions), and Euphoria

AcknowledgmentsSarah Skiles, John Harris, Michelle O’Neal, and Christina Couke-Garza, Senior Drug Chemists, Tarrant County Medical ExaminerDana Austin, PhD, Forensic Anthropologist,Tarrant County Medical ExaminerRobert Johnson, PhD, Chief Toxicologist, Tarrant County Medical Examiner….all the individuals involved with the Current Trends Conference

References & Resources:U.S. Department of Justice. National Drug Intelligence Center Department of Justice. Drug Enforcement Agency. Drugs and Chemicals of Concern Drugs. Wikipedia of National Drug Control Policy. Synthetic Drugs Institute on Drug Abuse. Emerging Drugs

Thank you!