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Presentation Slides & Transcript
Presentation Slides & Transcript
Back groundJust like energy, matter can’t be created or destroyed, only changed.Carbon, like other elements, cycles through the earth system Carbon’s structure of 4 valence electrons causes carbon to form many compounds. Carbon exists in four major reservoirs.Carbon is a key element in many greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4, and CO. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas.
Atmosphere - 800 Gt. Carbon Lithosphere - 55,000,000 Gt. (fossil fuels = 5,000 Gt. Carbon)Hydrosphere - 39,000 Gt. CarbonLand Biosphere - 2,000 Gt. Carbon
Carbon storage pools : carbon in the world’s fossil fuel reserves is probably more than 10 times as great as the amount in the atmosphere’s CO2 C dissolved in the oceans as inorganics (mainly HCO3) is enormous, world’s rocks contain C, in the CaCO3 of limestone and as organic matter in sedimentary rocksC transfers between pools: The increase rate of CO2 in atmosphere considers less than input from fossil fuels plus cement The difference is approximately accounted for by CO2 transferred into the oceans: as the atmospheric concentration increases, some of the CO2 dissolves in the oceans and adds to the HCO3 pool there.
Carbon Dioxide makes up a very small part of the atmosphere, less than 1%. However, human activity has caused changes in the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere and many scientists believe that even small changes have been enough to tip the climate balance.Global atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased from a pre-industrial value of about 280 ppm to 379 ppm in 2005 and 392ppm in 2011.Carbon Dioxide
This natural “carbon cycle” includes carbon dioxide used in plants during photosynthesis and the exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the oceans.The primary natural processes that release CO2 into the atmosphere (sources) and that remove CO2 from the atmosphere (sinks) are:Animal and plant respiration, by which oxygen and nutrients are converted into CO2 and energy, and plant photosynthesis by which CO2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored as carbon in plant biomass;Ocean-atmosphere exchange, in which the oceans absorb and release CO2 at the sea surface; andVolcanic eruptions, which release carbon from rocks deep in the Earth’s crust Natural Sources & Sinks
A variety of human activities lead to the emission (sources) and removal (sinks) of carbon dioxide (CO2)The largest source of CO2 emissions globally is the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas in power plants, automobiles, industrial facilities and other sources.A number of specialized industrial production processes and product uses such as mineral production, metal production and the use of petroleum-based products can also lead to CO2 emissions.Human Related Resources
Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are affected by the total amount of greenhouse gases emitted to and removed from the atmosphere around the world over time. a breakdown of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by each gas measured on a CO2-equivalent basis.Green House Gas
Carbon & Green House Gases
All the extra carbon dioxide that man is adding to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels is proving too much for the natural carbon cycle to deal with.All this means that the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are rising, up 40% from the start of the Industrial Revolution. This is causing global warming, which causes climate change. the planet requires plants and trees to absorb CO2 and put out oxygen into the atmosphere. They have a finite limit to their capability, so if we pump out more CO2 than they are capable of absorbing, there will be a buildup of surplus CO2 which is what is alleged to cause climate change. Carbon dioxide & Climate change
If too much carbon dioxide is emitted in the atmosphere, the heat energy from the sun will be strongly insulated with the carbon dioxide - causing the Earth's surface to become much warmer hence "global warming.“The polluting carbon dioxide can make Earth's climates warmer.Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere provides plants with carbon for photosynthesis. its also traps heat from the sun that would otherwise escape from Earth back into space. this important property, known as the GREEN HOUSE EFFECT.
The temperature rise from 1990 to 2100 is likely to be within the range 1-3.5"C. The 'best estimate' is a 2" warming between 1990 and 2100.There are lots of other things about future climate besides mean world temperature .Rainfall, Wind speed, Cloudiness, Energy input & Catastrophic eventAnother concern is rise in sea level. This could happen for two reasons: Future Climate Change
Carbon BudgetCarbon budget refers to the contribution of various sources of carbon dioxide on the planet. Carbon budget has nothing to do with political agendas, climate change legislation, carbon controls, carbon storage, or carbon footprint.Carbon budget figures are normally documented by mass of carbon. Documenting carbon budget figure by mass of carbon dioxide is limiting as sometimes the transfer of carbon from one system to another is via a compound other than carbon dioxide
A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or the mass of another greenhouse gas with a carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxideCarbon credits and carbon markets are a component of national and international attempts to mitigate the growth in concentrations of greenhouse gasesCarbon Credit
One carbon credit is equal to one metric tonne of carbon dioxide, or in some markets, carbon dioxide equivalent gases. Carbon trading is an application of an emissions trading approach. Greenhouse gas emissions are capped and then markets are used to allocate the emissions among the group of regulated sources.The goal is to allow market mechanisms to drive industrial and commercial processes in the direction of low emissions or less carbon intensive approaches than those used There are also many companies that sell carbon credits to commercial and individual customers who are interested in lowering their carbon footprint on a voluntary basis
The total set of GHGs emissions caused by an organization, event, product or personA measure of the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions of a defined population, system or activity, considering all relevant sources, sinks and storage within the spatial and temporal boundary of the population, system or activity of interest. Calculated as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2) using the relevant 100-year global warming potential (GWP100)."Carbon Foot print
The carbon footprint is a subset of the ecological footprint and of the more comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).An individual's, nation's, or organizations carbon footprint can be measured by undertaking a GHG emissions assessment. Once the size of a carbon footprint is known, a strategy can be devised to reduce itThe mitigation of carbon footprints through the development of alternative projects, such as solar or wind energy or reforestation, represents one way of reducing a carbon footprint and is often known as Carbon offsettingThe main influences on carbon footprints include population, economic output, and energy and carbon intensity of the economy.
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