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Oct 24th Psych

Published Oct 24, 2013 in Science
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Presentation Slides & Transcript

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Oct 24Cognitive Psychology (cont)

Three stages of memory processing:1. Sensory information store2. Short term memory – Working Memory3. Long term memory - relatively permanent storage

Neural Substrates for Working Memory (STM) A. Prefrontal cortex appears to be the place where attended or selected information is manipulated in working memory (short term memory) “the brain’s chalkboard” cortical tissue located just behind foreheadThe Prefrontal Cortex

What structures help individual short term memories become long term memories? A. consolidation for organized storage of declarative (fact-based) memories occurs in the medial temporal lobes B. the mechanisms for making the memories involve structural changes in the brain

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/how-memory-works.htmlHM – famous case across many experimentsPost brain surgery that removed the hippocampi and surrounding structures -No ability to make long term memories out of short term memories/experiences. XX

HM - famous case intelligent man with severe epilepsy at age 27, had large part of medial temporal lobes removed from each side of brain (bilateral) after surgery, anterograde amnesia - difficulty learning new information cannot remember new people he meets cannot find his way home to his new house aware of problem

HM has anterograde amnesia cannot make new long term memories Anterograde amnesia caused by bilateral damage to medial temporal lobe structures. Original emphasis only on hippocampus Now damage to inputs and outputs to hippocampus as well as hippocampus itself known to cause anterograde amnesia

HM But he has normal sensory memory (sensory information store) normal short term memory - carries on conversations, does mental arithmetic, can repeat 7 numbers forward and 5 backwards With rehearsal, can keep info. in STM - if distracted, all lost Remembers facts from past – most (but not all) of his long term memories are intact – episodic memory and semantic memory Polite, good natured, no major personality change

HM can learn new motor skills (mirror drawing) does demonstrate eyeblink conditioning in experiments, he can show recognition for new faces, melodies – says he does not (not aware), but performance demonstrates some memory. Forced to say familiar or unfamiliar – he says guesses but performance indicates effects.(2 pictures of men - 2 stories - one mean; the other a nice guy. Later reports liking the picture of the nice guy more than the mean guy. Doesn’t know why.)

Anterograde amnesia caused by bilateral damage to medial temporal lobe structures.These structures are: not location of long term memories (LTMs) not necessary for retrieval of LTMs not location of short term memories Instead, the medial temporal lobe structures are necessary to convert short term memories into long term memories – the encoding process

Retrograde Amnesia (relates to longterm memory) sometimes partially occurs with damage to these medial structures more commonly involves 1 -5 years prior to brain damage with rest intact suggests that “newer” LTMs are more vulnerable to disruption

Three stages of information processing:1. Sensory information store2. Short term memoryEncoding occurs if info progresses to LTM.3. Long term memory - relatively permanent storage

Two Types of Long Term MemoryDeclarative memory – knowledge to which we have conscious access – personal history knowledge of our own lives; fact-based knowledge. Non-declarative memory – knowledge to which we have no conscious access – the memory programs that allow perform procedures; motor acts. No intentional recollection of how or what you learned, but your performance improved. How to ride a bike How to read Habituation Classically-conditioned behaviors – you don’t have to stop and think about it; behavior is more automatic

EncodingStorageRetrievalForgettingPhysiology of MemorySystems and Types of MemorySemantic Memory System(General Knowledge, Stored Undated) Example: Lincoln Gave Gettysburg AddressEpisodic Memory System(Dated Recollections of Personal Experiences)Example: First KissMemoryDeclarative Memory System(Factual Information)

Organization in Semantic MemoryClustering – similar or related items are kept in organized groups e.g. Fruits; vegetables; toolsSchemas – organized clusters of knowledge about a particular object or event based on previous experience Ex: offices tend to have certain things – in descriptions of new information people may insert things that they only “expected” to be present but that actually were not

Organization in Memory1. Clustering – similar or related items are kept in organized groups e.g. Fruits; vegetables; tools; animals; people; objects2. Schemas – organized clusters of knowledge about a particular object or event based on previous experience3. Semantic networks – links between related words or concepts. Processing or thinking about one word can make another word easier to remember. Spreading activation – activation decreases as it travels outward from a node Think about a place – other memories get activated One person makes you think of others related in memory Likewise for organization of words and facts

Where are long term memories stored? Appear to be stored in cortical circuits that are active at time of information processing or event occurrence Example - damage to specific cortical regions causes specific types of memory loss Different frontal cortical areas associated with naming objects vs animals vs people. Brain damage indicates that a person can lose memory in a specific category – ex: vegetables but not fruits

LANGUAGEHuman Language Development

Language a collection of symbols and rules for combining those symbols that can be used to create an infinite variety of messagesI. 3 Defining Characteristics of LanguageSymbolic - written words or symbols and spoken sounds representing objects, actions, events and ideas. Book, paper, pencil - arbitrary names.Generative - limited number of symbols can be combined in infinite number of ways to create an endless number of messages.Structured - follow the rules in combining sounds and symbols to make meaningful utterances.

II. Structure of LanguageBasis units of language structure:Phonemes - smallest units of sound in a spoken language.The languages of the world consist of about 100 basic sounds. Different languages use different subsets of these 100 sounds.English - 45 Phonemes (26 letters of the alphabet and a few variations.E – bet versus beetU - but versus fumeI - bit versus bite 2. Morphemes - the smallest units of meaning.Root words - trapPrefixes – untrap; unfriendSuffixes - unfriendly (3 morphemes) untrapping (3 morphemes)

III. 4 primary features of LanguagePhonology - sounds/intonations that add meaning2. Semantics – meaningMust learn that words mean something - not just names of objects but names for concepts (large/small; democrat/republican)Syntax - grammatical structure - rules that specify how words are combined (grammar) in sentences. John hit Jim. Jim hit John. Same words , different meanings due to syntax. Sentence structure determines meaning. This is true in all language even through rules of sentence construction or syntax vary. For example, in Japanese it would be John Jim hit.4. Pragmatics - social adaptation; uses and interprets other languagesSocial adaptation of language use. The principles of specifying how language is to be used in different contexts and situations. “When” to say “what” to “whom”.