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Ximax Spinach Washing Protocol

Published Sep 9, 2013 in Business & Management
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Presentation Slides & Transcript

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Spinach Washing Protocol A Ximax Environmental Solutions PLCAlternative for E.coli and Pseudomonas

All green, leafy vegetables are subject to contamination…E. Coli and Pseudomonas are the most common and have major health issues

How serious is E. Coli? E. coli is a bacterium that causes diarrhea that is often bloody; the diarrhea can be accompanied by abdominal cramps. Fever may be absent or mild. Symptoms usually occur within 2-3 days following exposure, but may occur as soon as 1 day following exposure or up to one week following exposure. Healthy adults can typically recover completely; however, some people, especially young children and the elderly, can develop Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) a condition that can lead to serious kidney damage and even death.

And what about Pseudomonas? Pseudomonas aeruginosa is notorious for its resistance to antibiotics and is, therefore, a particularly dangerous and dreaded pathogen. The bacterium is naturally resistant to many antibiotics due to the permeability barrier afforded by its Gram-negative outer membrane. Also, its tendency to colonize surfaces in a bio-film form makes the cells impervious to therapeutic concentrations antibiotics. Since its natural habitat is the soil, living in association with the bacilli, actinomycetes and molds, it has developed resistance to a variety of their naturally-occurring antibiotics.

According to a US Report for the Food and Drug Administration…“…Even if you wash the spinach, you still could be at risk. Sober warnings for salad lovers came from federal health officials as they focused on a possible source of a multi-state E. coli outbreak that killed one person and sickened nearly 100 more. Twenty-nine people have been hospitalized, 14 of them with kidney failure…”

Ximax Environmental Solutions- UK AlternativeBetter than washing aloneHealthier than just waterDestroys bacteria and viruses

Spinach separated into bags of 25g Spike solution of 500ml containing E.coli and Pseudomonas was added to the 25g spinach. The spinach was washed with the bacterial suspension for 2 mins before the excess liquid was drained off. Four 1 litre solutions were made up consisting of a blank (sterile water), 1mg/l XzioXTM, 2mg/l XzioXTM and 4mg/l XzioXTM. 500ml of the solutions were added to the washed spinach bags and were agitated with a contact time of 5 mins. After 5 mins the excess liquid was drained off. 250ml of sterile water was added to the spinach and agitated for 2 mins. The liquid was drained off and then analysed by membrane filtration for the detection and enumeration of E.coli and Pseudomonas. Due to the turbidity of the spinach wash water only 10ml was filtered on to the respective growth medium. This has been factored into the calculation of the final result. In a recent test…

The results…obtained by…


The results prove…XzioXTM at 2 mg/litre for 5 minutes left only 2 counts, but 4 mg/litre for 5 minutes leaves NO detectable level of E. Coli


Again, the results prove…XzioX TMat 4 mg/litre for 5 minutes leaves NO detectable level of Pseudomonas


These results…XzioXTM at any level above 5 mg/litre for 30 seconds leaves NO detectable level of Pseudomonas

When we adjusted for Temperature…using a beginning count of 11,400 cfu/ml


Then, we tested at 22°C for 30 seconds…


Comparative analysis at 37ºC…


Comparative analysis…


Summary…Other tests have considered various times (i.e., 30, 60 and 180 seconds), temperatures (i.e., 37°C and 22°C) and concentrations (i.e., 2-8 mg/L of XzioXTM)We suggest that two scenarios should be considered for benchmark trials:XzioXTM at 4 mg/litre for five (5) minutes at 37°C and 22°CXzioXTM at 5 mg/litre for three (3) minutes at 37°C and 22°C