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Chapter 20: The Early Counter- Reformation and Mannerism
What is the Escorial?
Palace and Monastery
Built outside Madrid by King Philip
Center of culture and the Spanish Empire
Housed the royal court
Philip’s giant library
Royal art collection
Building The Escorial
Began 1563 and supervised by Juan Bautista de Toledo and then his assistant Juan de Herrera.
Brought from Italy
Supervised Michelangelo’s work at Saint Peters
He designed many buildings, piazzas and fountains in Naples.
The Escorial reflects the Italian Renaissance
Defeated the French in 1557.
Partly credited to his father’s endless warring.
Saw the Escorial as a memorial for his victory over the French.
Set up permanent residency in the Escorial.
Helped to create better communication in the Empire.
Sought to bring in a sense of restraint in all parts of life
A more secular approach to life came about
Came from the High Renaissance’s love for artistic genius and originality
Courts supports non religious based art
Italian word: maniera
Reflects virtuosity and sophistication of practitioners
Art style opposite of what’s called for with the Council of Trent
With it came more free , inventive literature
Pope Alexander VI declared the New World was property of the Church,
He rented it to Spain and made it clear that no other country was to occupy the territory without his permission
In Charles V point of view all the Americas were for is funding the war with France
Warring since 1521
After Emperor Maximilian died Charles V intended to be emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Philip 2 father
Unlike Philip, he moved around freely
Had a constant feud with France
The Empire was enormous including Netherlands, Iberian peninsula, southern Italy, Milan, Austria, parts of present-day Germany, and the French-Comte, then all of Germany was added, Switzerland, and more of Italy
After Charles V’s brother (Louis II of Hungary) was killed Charles wanted peace with the Church so the Church could focus on the threat of Protestantism
In 1544 he sued for peace because he was tired of the conflict
Both kings turned to Pope Paul III to confront their common enemy (the Protestant)
The Catholic Church
Knew it partially fueled the Reformation
Couldn’t respond politically because of the feud with Charles V and France
Helped convince the Pope to convene the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
First met in 1545
Charged with reforming the church
Called for a “simplicity, zeal toward God and a contempt of vanities.”
Believed the art and music of the church should reflect its values.
Knew there could be no military victory over Protestantism
How the Council Worked
Met in 3 sessions
It made 4 pope’s careers last over a time frame of 18 years
Recognized that the hearts and souls of the people had to be won over
They reinforced the traditional Roman Catholic doctrine
Concentrated on bringing back the Church’s discipline
Bringing Back Church Discipline
Ended Church office and religious goods selling
Bishops had to return to their dioceses and had to preach regularly
The bishops didn’t need to live ostentatiously.
The bishops were to keep a strict celibacy